Physical properties of Chalcones
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Chalconoids Greek: χαλκÏŒς khalkós, "copper", due to its color), also known as chalcones, are natural phenols related to Chalcone. They form the central core for a variety of important biological compounds.
They show antibacterial, antifungal, antitumor and anti-inflammatory properties. Some chalconoids demonstrated the ability to block voltage-dependent potassium channels. Chalcones are also natural aromatase inhibitors.
Chalcones are aromatic ketones with two phenyl rings that are also intermediates in the synthesis of many biological compounds. The closure of hydroxychalcones causes the formation of the flavonoid structure. Flavonoids are substances in the plant secondary metabolism with an array of biological activities.
Chalconoids are also intermediates in the Auwers synthesis of flavones.
Chalcone synthase is an enzyme responsible for the production of chalconoids in plants.
Chalcone isomerase is responsible for their conversion into flavanones and other flavonoids.
Naringenin-chalcone synthase uses malonyl-CoA and 4-coumaroyl-CoA to produce CoA, naringien, and CO2.
In aurones, the chalcone-like structure closes into a 5-atom ring instead of the more typical 6-atom ring (C ring).
Chalcones can be prepared by an aldol condensation between benzoldihyde and acetophenon in the presence of sodium hydroxide as a catalyst.
This reaction can be carried out without any solvent as a solid-state reaction. The reaction between substituted benzaldehydes and acetophenones can be used as an example of green chemistry in undergraduate education. In a study investigating green syntheses, chalcones were synthesized from the same starting materials in high-temperature water (200 to 350 °C).
Substituted chalcones were also synthesised by piperidine-mediated condensation to avoid side reactions such as multiple condensations, polymerizations, and rearrangements.
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